With the formation of the Global Health Workforce Alliance and the commitment of organizations such as the WHO, we now have mechanisms to provide leadership at the global level. But strategic HR leadership managing people as a strategic resource poses a significant challenge for most ministries of health because HR management policies and practices are not in professional hands. Countries need visionary leaders to advocate that funding for HR solutions go hand-in-hand with funding for health programs. Millions of dollars, for example, have been invested to ensure the availability of AIDS and tuberculosis drugs, but hardly any funding has been committed to ensure that there is a sustainable workforce to administer these drugs.
At all levels of the health system, what is lacking is a critical mass of proactive and respected HR managers and specialists who are professionally qualified and have the authority and clout to attract attention and deal with these challenges and champion a comprehensive response.
Chapter 13 - Improving the organization and management of extension
To make significant improvements in human resources for health and in the health of populations — improvements that will last — managers need to know how to lead and how to influence HR changes within and outside their organizations. Health leaders and managers report that they are mired in layers of civil service rules, highly centralized and fragmented HR management systems, poor incentives, underuse or misuse of existing staff, and external pressure to diminish social-sector expenditure.
Managers in many countries say that the leadership to address these issues is lacking. There are pilot projects and examples of effective HR solutions at the country level, but HR directors and policymakers need a new way of thinking about leading and managing to sustain these positive results and scale them up. Health managers at a recent HR leadership meeting in Southern Africa described their problems as follows: "We are certainly weakest at implementing. We agree on weekly, monthly, and quarterly activities — but at the end of the day almost nothing gets done These sentiments are echoed around the world.
Most countries have clearly identified the HR challenges they face and many have developed an HR strategy, but these often stay on the shelf and are not implemented in any systematic way that will achieve their intended outcomes. Often the reason cited for this failure is lack of funding, but we propose that, even with adequate funding, efforts to implement HR plans and obtain results may fail due to other factors.
Donors fund pieces of the solution, with little harmonization among these partial approaches, diminishing the impact that could result from a comprehensive, harmonized approach. HR solutions require time at least three to five years to produce results. HRM systems are fragmented, with authority for HR planning, recruitment, hiring, deployment, promotion, compensation, incentives, and staff development spread among several ministries. These systems need to be streamlined and staffed by trained HR professionals before lasting change can occur.
Ministries of health cannot solve the HR crisis on their own. Ministries of civil service, finance, and education, and the private sector all have a role to play. Progress in dealing with these factors depends on managers who are able to lead and inspire teams at all levels of the health system to transform strategies, plans, and recommendations into a comprehensive and harmonized approach.
At present, most government HR functions are handled by personnel administrators who were trained to handle routine civil service policies and procedures. There is an urgent need to professionalize this cadre, expand the organizational view of their roles, and update their skills so they can be more effective in leading change and implementing plans. This is not the traditional approach to developing leadership, which is aimed at top leaders and focuses on leadership traits and characteristics. The three articles that follow in this series constituting the special quarterly feature on leadership illustrate what can happen when managers put the MSH model into practice.
We offer examples of HR activities carried out in the public sector at both the central and district levels, as well as an example from civil society. The dialogue about human resources for health today is broad. It offers data on the shortages of health workers and the human toll that results, it provides a detailed analysis of the causes of the crisis, and it presents a wide range of solutions from task-shifting to new models for community nursing.
We will give an example later on. The result of an HR strategy is often an HR mission statement.
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The HR mission statement helps to clearly define where the organization wants to go. All Human Resource Management practices and decisions can be judged based on that statement. This mission statement clearly focuses on the creation of an environment for different groups. For example, I would be very surprised if this HR department is not actively involved in student community-building projects. Digital HR plays a pivotal role in enabling the HR strategy. In the final section of this article, we will explore the role of digital in more depth.
When creating and implementing an HR strategy, there are a number of best practices to keep in mind. A good example of a Human Resource strategy that worked was how Netflix managed its people. This was an opportunity. By letting go of the B-players, the remaining employees were happier and more productive.
This also had consequences for people who once were invaluable but had become redundant as the company grew. After Netflix went public, there was some pressure to formalize the paid-off-time policy. After some research, McCord decided to use a system in which employees could take as much time off as they felt was appropriate — in dialogue with their boss. This framework follows a step approach towards defining strategy and delivering value. The first phase is about defining human capital value.
This happens in two steps:. Understand the business strategy — this is about understanding the market forces and identifying how they impact HR strategy and priorities. Define HR strategy — in this second step, you create a roadmap about how HR aligns its strategy and how it helps to build a competitive advantage for the organization.
Segment HR customers — not all HR customers are equal. In the third step, you segment your different internal customer groups and identify the most crucial ones. Different customer groups require different policies and approaches. Prioritize HR investments — your HR budget and other resources are limited. Prioritize the investments that benefit your key customers and that provide the best ROI.
Third, HR practices need to deliver value. This is the right side of the standard causal model for HRM. You should also analyze the key HR enablers such as HR systems , processes, and infrastructure. Optimizing these will help in delivering HR services that add value to the organizational strategy. The questionnaire of this study is adapted from previous literature and studies e. Ajayi et. The main reason why we need to refer to literatures when developing a questionnaire is to ensure the high reliability and validity of the survey.
The questionnaire we prepared for this paper was divided into 2 sections. In the second section we were interested in gathering information about the importance of MIS and its use in Case one and Case two of financial institutions in Bahrain.
The respondents were provided with a list of questions related to the following factors;. Using a personal relationship, the questionnaire has been discussed with various levels of bank management and a pilot study has been conducted amongst low-level members of the bank's staff. This improved the questionnaire, which has been used for the research presented in this study. The population for the study is the top management strategic , mid level management tactical and normal staff in Case one government financial institution and Case two private financial institution. This population is deemed to be fully aware of the MIS use at the bank level.
A total of forms were distributed equally each bank with 95 survey forms.
In a convenience sample, the managers and bank staff were randomly approached. The distribution took place for a three-week period in early March, The survey was designed in English language. The research tested the time to fill the survey and it took approximately minutes to be completed. The questionnaire we prepared and used had been pre-tested initially with few people 5 users working in different sectors to ensure consistency, clarity and relevance to the Bahraini case. Minor changes related to the questions content, wording, and sequence were requested by those people, which we implemented before carrying out the final copy.
Moreover, the simple Regression was implemented to test the hypothesis and the linkages between dependent and independent variables. This section presents the factor analysis test. Then, the results of correlation analysis of the three variables Strategic planning, Tactical Planning, and The Effectiveness of Decision-making are discussed.
Finally, the results of the paper are discussed in accordance with the research objectives and hypothesis of the study. Correlation analysis was incorporated to describe the strength and direction of the linear relationship between the two independent variables and the dependent variable Pallant, Effectiveness of the bank's decision-making processes, which are the dependent variables considered to be the bank's succession in management building and facility, financial aspects and staff issues.
Previous studies underpinned the importance of conducting correlation tests before the regression testing, the correlation between variables thus necessary Coakes and Steed, The result of the correlations is presented in the following table table 1. M Effectiveness. For further analysis, a Linear Regression analysis was conducted to examine the extent to which the independent variables Strategic planning and Tactical Planning influence the succession Effectiveness of the bank's decision making dependent variable.
The independent variables were regressed across organizational outcomes. Tables 2 , 3 and 4 summarized the results of the Linear Regression analysis. The results of regression indicated that the variance in the Effectiveness of the bank's decision making is explained by only one variable; Strategic planning, while Tactical Planning found not to affect the Effectiveness of the bank's decision making process.
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The regression analysis was implemented to support the correlation test. However, the study revealed that the Tactical planning is found to have no effect on D. M Effectiveness in the bank. The current study intended to measure the implementation and the use of MIS in two banks in the Kingdom of Bahrain.
Two different planning activities have been identified to measure the banks implementation and use of MIS, these activities are: Strategic planning and Tactical Planning. Correlation analysis was incorporated to describe the strength and direction of the linear relationship between the two independent variables and the dependent variable. The results of the descriptive statistics reveal that MIS was primarily used to enhance Strategic planning long term in the bank.
Correlation test thus implemented investigate the relationship between the two variables. The result reveals that the two variables in this study are correlated with the effectiveness of the decision-making process in the banks. As for Cohen , the result revealed that the Strategic planning is medium correlated with the effectiveness of the decision making process in the bank, while Tactical planning indicates small correlation with the effectiveness of the decision making process in the bank. Moreover, the results of regression indicated that the variance in the Effectiveness of the bank's decision making process is explained by only one variable, the Strategic planning, while Tactical Planning found not to affect the Effectiveness of the bank's decision making process.
Management Information Systems is of paramount importance to reach effective decisions in an organization. The literatures presented in this study explained the significant role of MIS in the decision-making process enhancing in an organization. MIS is deemed to be an integrated user-machine system that provides information to support operations, management and decision-making functions at various levels of an organization.
Organizations are aware that MIS is a special-purpose system useful for management objectives. The study has highlighted that MIS should be accessible in supplying appropriate and high quality of information from its generation to its users. To MIS, to be vital and effective, a carefully conceived, designed and executed database should exist to communicate the adaptive decisions. The study has developed two independent variables Strategic planning and Tactical planning and one dependant variable the Effectiveness of Bank Decisionmaking.
To answer the research questions and to test the hypotheses, the study adapted the quantitative research design and implemented advance statistic methods Correlation, ANOVA and regression. The study considered applied research as the results of this study expected to specifically assist bank top management and organizations in general to develop MIS designing, maintaining and implementation in order to enhance the process of decision-making.
In short, the results of the descriptive statistics revealed that MIS primarily used to enhance Strategic planning in the banks. The study also revealed that MIS is the least implemented in the Tactical planning. Correlation analysis was incorporated to describe the strength and direction of the linear relationship between the two study variables.
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The results of correlation revealed that Strategic planning and Tactical Planning are positively correlated with the bank D. For further analysis, a Linear Regression analysis was conducted to examine the extent to which the independent variables Strategic planning and Tactical Planning influence the succession Effectiveness of the bank decision making dependent variable. The results of regression revealed that the model is significant and the coefficient of determination R for the regression is 0.
The result of regression indicated that the variance in the Effectiveness of the bank decision making is explained by only one variable: Strategic planning. However, the study revealed that Tactical Planning is found to have no effect on D. Based on the findings of this study, MIS was not very adequately implemented for decision making on Strategic planning and Tactical Planning in Bahrain banks. Although there are differences Case one in the use of MIS for decision-making processes, the results revealed that the effectiveness of decision making is similar to the Case two.
It is therefore recommended that the MIS units should be adequately maintained to ensure the free flow of information and adequate use of MIS in decision making in Strategic and Tactical Planning. The study also recommends that a proper orientation should be conducted in order to help managers at all levels as to ensure proper and adequate use of MIS facilities in generating and disseminating information for better decisions in the banks.
The organization management does not always recognize the information needed, while the information professionals often do not comprehend and are aware of management in order to produce relevant information for the managers they serve. To be successful, an MIS should be designed and operated related to organizations, management and technical factors. The study encourages the organizations' top management to participate in enhancing MIS and make an effective contribution to system design.
The information specialists including systems analysts, designer, ITC personnel, accountants and operations researchers should cooperate and become more conscious and ware of managerial functions needs so that more effective MIS is developed. Finally, we believe that to enhance MIS, banks or any organization that use MIS to enhance its decision making processes should develop effective communication channels between management and information professionals. Good communications then facilitates the task of developing relevant and appropriate information systems. It is no simple checklist to automatically produce the perfect MIS.
Organization thus would be aware that what is required is an awareness and understanding of key principles and functions in which the design, implementation and operation of MIS are the results of rational decisions rather than haphazard development without considering the real organizational needs. Adebayo F. Management Information System for Managers.